Installment loans and consumer loans are often referred to as blank loans. However, that is not correct. Blank loans are loans that are granted without any collateral. The creditworthiness determined by the lender according to its guidelines is sufficient. Installment loans are usually also granted without lengthy examination procedures. In most cases, however, loan collateral has to be provided. Banks are generally not satisfied with sufficient creditworthiness alone. It explains which collateral is typical for consumer loans and which is also possible. In addition, the advantages for consumers are weighed against the disadvantages. See feycat.net
Assignment of wage claims
Assignment of attachable wage claims is almost always a prerequisite for the granting of a consumer loan. This applies to all types of credit, including small loans without Credit Record. In principle, it is also expected that the borrower will disclose his bank details in the loan request. As a rule, the bank does not initially notify the employer of the assignment of claims. In this case one speaks of a so-called silent assignment. This prevents the employer from being informed about the borrowing.
Another person signs the loan agreement
Co-signing can be legally assessed differently depending on the individual case. In any case, the economic consequences are the same. The co-signer is liable with his entire assets if the borrower no longer pays the installments. The third person can become the contractual partner of the loan contract directly. The bank can then use two borrowers. Another option is for the third party to provide the bank with a joint and several guarantee. In this case too, the bank can contact the guarantor directly if there are defaults. The bank does not have to first claim the outstanding amount from the borrower.
The signing of the loan contract by another person is extremely popular with banks.
Many credit inquiries for internet loans begin with the question of whether the applicant wants to take out the loan on his own or if he wants to do it together with another person. If co-signed, the bank can always access the entire assets of the third person. There are hardly any two debtors for the same claim, there is hardly any better credit security, provided the other borrower or guarantor has sufficient creditworthiness. Co-signing by another person can also have advantages for the borrower. By strengthening creditworthiness, interest rates should be cheaper than with just one borrower.
In some cases, the first signer’s creditworthiness is not sufficient for the loan, for example because there are negative Credit Record entries. Then the co-signer, whose credit rating is crucial in such situations, makes lending possible in the first place. However, the risk is high for the co-signer or the guarantor. Liability does not only extend to the entire property. The loan agreement or the joint and several guarantee also appears in the Credit Record file. This creates a preload that can cause problems with future co-signing loans.
Transfer of property by way of security
In private customer business, the transfer of property by way of security to the bank plays a role in vehicle financing. It is customary to deposit the vehicle letter with the bank. However, not all banks insist.The transfer by way of security is one reason for the low interest rates of the dedicated car loans. It also enables loans to consumers with creditworthiness or Credit Record problems. The credit check is not as strict as with general purpose loans.
Order a land charge
The land charge is essential for real estate financing. However, it can also be useful for installment loans over large amounts, for example $ 50,000 and more. This is especially the case if the first rank is still available. Some credit intermediaries have specialized, among other things, in the granting of general-purpose loans that can be secured in the land register. The advantage for borrowers is that such loans are low-interest and have long terms. In addition, they are not earmarked. They can be used for debt rescheduling or for any other purchase.
Assignment of building loan contracts and life insurance
Many banks “loan” home loan contracts and life insurance policies. For example, loans are possible up to 70% of the current surrender value. Extensive credit checks are not necessary in such cases. Credit Record information is often omitted or the results do not play a decisive role in lending. In principle, the insurance policy must be left to the bank. Taking out a policy loan from the insurance company is an alternative. In economic terms, the policy loan is a kind of advance payment on the final payment at the end of the contract.
Pledging or transferring securities as security
Borrowers can deposit securities with the bank as collateral or transfer or pledge the securities of an entire custody account as security. The lending limit depends on the risk class of the securities. Highly volatile stocks, such as stocks from third countries, may be lent at 40% of the current value, but more stable stocks at 60%. For savings, the lending limit may be 100%.
What are loan collateral?
By definition, collateral minimizes the credit risk of the lender. Banks do not only rely on their customers’ sufficient creditworthiness, because creditworthiness can change in the future. For example, a borrower can lose his job or earn less after changing jobs. Loan guarantees are classified according to different criteria. A rough distinction is made between the following types:
- Real security: This includes assignments of security of claims and rights, liens on movable property and on land (mortgage, land charge) or on claims, transfer of security of movable property (for example, delivery of letters for vehicle loans).
- Personal collateral : sureties, contract entry, guarantee declarations or assumption of debt.
- Fiduciary or fiduciary collateral: All transfers by way of security or assignment of claims as well as guarantees and debt assurances. In addition, the security land charge. One also speaks of non-accessory collateral or abstract collateral because these loan collateral are independent of the existence of the secured claim.
- Additional collateral: guarantees, all liens and mortgages. Nowadays, real estate loans are almost never secured with mortgages, even though mortgage loans are still used. It is common to order security land charges.
Credit collateral strengthening
One speaks of an increase in collateral if the borrower is obliged under certain contractually determined circumstances to provide additional credit collateral. Collateral strengthening can also be agreed in the event that the original collateral loses value. In most cases, an increase in loan collateral is agreed in the event that a borrower’s credit rating deteriorates significantly during the term of the loan.
Realization of collateral
Of course, the bank cannot readily exploit the security, for example by selling the car that has been assigned as security. Rather, the security agreement regulates when and under what procedure a recovery can be considered. An assignment of claims, for example from wage claims, is exploited by asserting the employer and, if necessary, by legal title. Transferable items or securities are sold in accordance with the agreement made. Guarantees are asserted against the citizens as soon as the borrower is in arrears with a certain, previously agreed, number of installments. If necessary, the claims against the guarantor will be asserted in court. If necessary, land charges and mortgages are realized by foreclosing the property.
advantages and disadvantages
The advantages for the bank are obvious. Credit institutions can practically reduce the default risk to almost zero by means of collateral. Borrowers, on the other hand, have the option of reducing interest charges by providing collateral loan. The more the credit risk is reduced by collateral, the greater the interest advantage should actually be.
Personal collateral poses a high risk to the protection seller. As a rule, the protection seller has no decisive influence on whether and in what way the current borrower fulfills his obligations. In principle, they are always liable for the entire remaining amount, with their entire attachable assets and income. If claims are made against the protection providers, they can resort to this extent. Since the borrower was not able to pay the original claim, the success is questionable in many cases. It is not for nothing that it says: “Whoever vouches is gagged”.